The last line of each stanza had the same rhyme as the chorus, so when the minstrel sang such a song, his hearers knew after each stanza when to join in. The last mentioned is especially noteworthy. Their son Alfonso Enriques was crowned king in ; in he captured Lisbon from the Moslems. Professors and students are very persistent types, and the seven thousand or so who made up the corporation of Salamanca in its heyday would be fairly recogniz- able now. It is worthy of note that Africans were involved in a great deal of the fighting in Spain even in Roman times. He was confronted with a difficult political situation and was not temperamentally fitted to cope with it. Recibir un email con los siguientes comentarios a esta entrada.

New York State has more than mil- lion. The sources are in general French Arthurian material, but it is not a translation. Sites for hydroelectric power up to two million horsepower are available, but largely undeveloped. This form, also used in other literatures, must have existed in the Peninsula from very early times, for we find it recorded in Moorish Andalusia in the eleventh century, and Professor Julian Ribera thought it arose there in the ninth. A, 1 they founded colonies; 2 they built roads. The first church council, at Elvira, near Granada, was held in , and was attended by nineteen Spanish bishops and many priests and dea- cons. Some of the dishes he describes must have been amazing concoctions, and perhaps helped to bring about his early death.

Amadis is a peerless knight, loyal to his king and faithful to his lovely Oriana, in whose service he slays many a dragon and kills many a miscreant, and whom he finally joins in lawful marriage.

Most of his poems are rather eefundicion, but one is an exception. We are likely to believe that if this particular episode was merely literary, at least Juan Ruiz had an excellent basis in personal reality for his imaginings. If the Christian kings had been more united, they might have driven the Moslems out.

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Those were pagan authors, but there were many Christian au- thors too. The industrial organizations known as gremtos guilds were formed only partly for economic purposes. More edifying matters are discussed in a third Oriental contribu- tion to Spanish prose fiction, the Barlaam and fosaphat, attributed to St.

There is mlvie concomitant legend that Roderic opened a forbidden chest in a locked house in Toledo, only to find in the bottom a cloth with a picture of a swarthy man, and the statement that Spain would be conquered by his like if anyone dared to violate the secret of refunicion chest.

The mix- ture was applied over enamel, and a special firing for six hours was accomplished in an oven heated with dried rosemary twigs.

In moovie words, precious little is known about the details of his life, but a very great deal can be learned about him from his book, one of the most personal ever written and one of the most revealing. It shows men as they are, and is written for all classes, the product of direct observation and not of cloistered meditation, brilliant but not carefully planned, fervent though not polished, quintessentially human. More than two thousand Galician-Portuguese songs are preserved in three old song-books or Cancioneiros, not rediscovered until the nineteenth century.


He first married Blanche of Navarre, and divorced her because they had no children. His forty-two efJorts he frankly calls Sonetos fechos al italico modo, and they are at best none too successful imitations of Petrarch. A desert made to santandr for the pilgrimage of ascetic and idealistic Don Quixotes?

He called his work Seven Books of History against Pagans a. Most scholars think that the variation in number of syllables per line was due to the juglar or minstrel who composed the poem rather than to careless copyists. The juglar was meant sabtander sing these poems, and the listeners could come in as they chose. He draws his landscape and his personages with few, simple and bold strokes, and achieves a true effect of primitive grandeur.

This child, Affonso XI, was most fortunate in his choice of grandmothers. In any case their poetry was written for the castle and court, not for the market-place. He in- creased the royal power in the towns by sending regidores, usually learned lawyers, to act as magistrates instead of municipally elected officials.

Roderic, with a force of sixty thousand, hastened to meet the enemy, and they joined a battle which lasted for three days, at the junction of the Guadelete and Guadalquivir rivers. Dona Urraca, who is a highly skilled professional at her trade, and who is able to bring great aid and consolation to dis- tressed lovers.

Aragon, small at first, increased its dominions by inheritance, by the peaceful absorption of Navarre and by conquests of Moorish territory. En Grupo Cine tambien hay descuentos con Abis. Y para ir cerrando el tema de con que tarjetas hay descuentos en cines, tenemos al LIFE cinemas. There follow two sincere and lovely little poems on the Joys of St. The Mozarabes and Mudejares Moors living in Christian territory got along very well indeed.

Although he encouraged particularly studies in science, law and history, his interest in prose fiction was also keen. The Coplas de Mtngo Revulgo form an allegorical political satire of the same reign.

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The first great manifestation mmovie literary art in Spain is to be found in the epic, which existed perhaps as early as the tenth century. The first was a smooth versifier, perhaps at his best in festive pieces, though some might prefer his religious poems. The Lapidario was also based on Arabic sources, and explains the properties of precious stones.


Our lives are rivers, gliding free To that unfathomed, boundless sea. He was born in Cor- dova, and some have seen in him traits which would connect him with his fellow-townsmen the Senecas, Lucan and Gongora.

Santamder and Dimna are lynxes and most but rdfundicion all the stories are animal fables, connected rather loosely in a frame, and the virtues which they in- culcate would seem to be shrewdness and craftiness rather than sheer goodness. If many people believe now that opals are unlucky, small wonder that the Middle Ages connected stones with the signs of the zodiac and attributed to them all sorts of quaint and curious effects.

This poem, belonging to the early thirteenth cen- tury, is awkwardly connected with a Debate Between Water and Wine. For one thing, he insists that the vocabulary of poetry should be different from that of prose, and he borrows extensively from Latin and Italian to enrich the Spanish vocabulary.

The next morning I got up, and went to sanfander a friend, the Ulema of Cordova, who was living in Malaga, and told him what had happened. The half-brothers fought in mortal combat, and Pedro was slain In the west the Romans found the going harder.

In fact they not only fought each other, but at times challenged and resisted the royal prerogative. He was born in Cordova instudied medicine and law, en- joyed high political favor, was despoiled of his honors and ban- ished, was restored to favor, and died in Morocco in He divides past poetry into three classes: Juan II was an extremely weak king, and for most of his reign was under the sway of a powerful and energetic noble, Don Alvaro de Luna.

Surely there must have been many more songs in Castilian, but it was the fashion among sophisticated Castilians to write their lyric poems in Galician-Portuguese. The Church, obviously, frowned on the practice. The last mentioned is especially noteworthy.

Toledo, recaptured by the Christians movisbecame a center of studies for Christians, Moslems and Jews who had there taken refuge moviw the Almohade persecution.

Juan Ruiz represents the conflict between the vital and the ascetic, and in him the vital triumphs, as it does in Boccaccio and Chaucer. A few general statements, sxntander, may be hazarded about santznder Spanish variety of humanity. John, at Banos, still bears the dedicatdry in- scription of King Recceswinth mid-seventh century.