More specific data on attacks committed by radical nationalists in recent years is available in the annual reports of the SOVA Center, http: However, these and similar expert opinions formed the basis for the decision of a district court in Moscow to ban 14 books by Said Nursi their Russian translations, to be precise as extremist. But, in addition to these immediate results, we also see that the political goal-setting in this sphere is problematic. He also beat up one of the women, aged Some websites are blocked not following any court trial but simply by the decision of the General Prosecutor, which can order Roskomnadzor to preemptively block any website deemed extremist. As our work developed, we gathered to discuss our methodologies and findings, both in closed workshops and in a public conference. We can point out at least three parameters that describe the intersection of religion and violence, and all three can take different values. Yet the fact that victims bother to report a significant number of minor attacks on property suggests that the most egregious incidents—involving physical injury or death—are usually made public.
Consequently, the battle involves three identifiable fronts: Based only on the sentences, for which the SOVA Center at least approximately knows the content of the incriminating statements, we can put together a preliminary picture. Among them were international organ- izations, such as Al-Qaida, and Hizb ut-Tahrir, the specific case of the Caucasus Emirate, as well as some small groups that existed only at the local level in some Russian regions. Despite widespread acknowledgement of the problem, the understanding of the role played by online propaganda in the process of violent radicalization remains limited. There are significant regional differences, caused by a huge influx of migrants, primarily from Central Asia, and the mass internal migration of Mus- lims primarily from the North Caucasus. Yet, it is also clear that religion does play its own role: Sabrina Petra Ramet Cambridge: Very few sociological surveys done in Russia inquire about perceptions of Muslims.
Мусульмане-фанатики под присмотром полиции громили коптскую церковь – kedra23
However, the cases related to public statements that can be regarded as Islamist propaganda are much more numerous than the cases related to direct calls for violence. A Strategy for Action London: If a participant in such an organization or group happens to be arrested rather than killed under various circumstances, there is no need to seek evidence related to his views.
This securitization of Islam is expressed mostly in the judicial realm, targeting organizations, indi- viduals who belong or are alleged to belong to these organizations, and publications and the spread of them. Gradually this law has been forgotten as completely inapplicable. Not surprisingly, the set of forbidden works came to include the collections of hadiths, medieval Sufi treatises, and many similar works.
Next, the Enteo group also never engaged in excessively brutal violence and never faced any punishment. Some say the numbers are inflated and include people who live in Turkey and the Middle East; others say they are incomplete because the government is unable to track all the militants.
In this context, we focus only on violence in its literal sense physical attacks against people or property or on public calls for this kind of violence. Moreover, with regard to many entries in this segment of the list, the material is impossible to identify.
Publishing House of the Moscow Patriarchate,75— According to Supreme Court data, a total of 1, people were punished for this offense in An appropriate definition might limit the term to acts that relate to violence, including public calls for violence and financing of related activities. Ortho- dox clerics initiated similar incidents in Nizhny Novgorod and Tver regions in For example, in Tyumen, the issue of overcrowded city mosques was discussed at the meeting of former President Dmitry Medvedev with Russian Muftis.
There are significant regional differences, caused by a huge influx of migrants, primarily from Central Asia, and the mass internal migration of Mus- lims primarily from the North Caucasus. Prominent such figures have been able to get their writings removed from the Federal List of Ex- tremist Materials almost impossible for others and even received state grant funding for their activity.
The Strategy for Combating Extremism An oicial attempt to formalize the terminology within the field of countering extremism in gen- eral, including extremism related to religion, was made in Since the early s, St. Since then, the average annual total has been 26, with a peak of 58 incidents in Among them were international organ- izations, such as Al-Qaida, and Hizb ut-Tahrir, the specific case of the Caucasus Emirate, as well as some small groups that existed only at the local level in some Russian regions.
On a national, as well as on a religious basis.
These features are what makes the text of the Strategy interesting—it onlkne not very important as an actual practical instruction, but as a locus of the oicial approaches. The complete data is not available—the Supreme Court summary data does not allow grouping by the type of hatred, while the SOVA Center data is incomplete.
OGI, ; Alexander Verkhovsky, ed. In fact, we are talking about any attempt to continue organized activities of the same groups of people with approximately the same goals. We therefore hope that our work as presented in this volume elucidates the situation as it stands and helps define the way forward for further research and analysis in this field.
We conclude by drawing from all eight papers developed for this project the key recommendations that participants derived from their research, and the areas for further analysis that they identified. Edinburgh University Press,75— Twenty-two remaining entries include materials by Scien- tologists and other new religious movements.
Smmotret Constitutional Court ruled that the definition of extremist activity was suiciently clear, and could be used as a basis tilm prohibiting books and other works. He considers bans against the books by L. Second, one entry can include several materials, while the same material can be found in several amotret.
Publishing house of the brotherhood in the name of St. In doing so the Russian govern- ment actually moved existing legislation closer to Western norms, softening a notoriously onerous Criminal Code. First was the reality of the aforementioned diverse governmental smotrret, which we had to acknowl- edge, even if we did not agree with them.
On the other hand, we see only three entries with anti-Islamic materials two of them for the famous Innocence of Muslims video. Nationalist organizations that put their religious Orthodox self-identification first, or at least allow it to share the first place with the ethnic one, were not observed to actively engage in racist street violence except, perhaps, the attacks against LGBT activists.
NLO,87— The investigative bodies did not even try to present evidence in court that the alleged offenders had been trained to perpetrate terroristic attacks; it was enough to state that the offenders were yusug in party activities, whether spreading or simply studying literature on Hizb ut-Tahrir, or meeting like-minded people.
This agreement did not address two words that did require common definitions: Only a few cases are known.